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Tattoos in weird places

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Girl Gets Tattoo in the Weirdest Place

Girl Gets Tattoo in the Weirdest Place

I don’t understand why she would choose to get a tattoo here but I do wonder how she is going to wipe after this.

During a tattoo expo in South Florida, tons of people watched this classy woman add some decor to her butthole. She wasn’t going to beautify that sensitive area with anything girly, she decided to show her love to her man by tattooing his name in there.

This video confuses me because she says there are two names in there but the interviewer only says one. Either way, any name in there doesn’t give me the impression that you love that guy every time you head to the bathroom.

Watch her stay calm as she is getting the tattoo done. I think she must be on some kind of drug to think this feels good. Her reaction when asked how it feels just creeps me out. I hope to not see anyone do this at this weekend’s Texas Tattoo Showdown Festival.

If you already have one of these hideous tattoos, don’t forget to send it in to our bad tattoo contest to win tickets and hopefully get a better tattoo.

Read More: Girl Gets Tattoo in the Weirdest Place [VIDEO] [NSFW] | http://klaq.com/girl-gets-tattoo-in-the-weirdest-place-video-nsfw/?trackback=tsmclip

Woman to marry her pet DOG after husband of 16 years – her CAT – dies

Marriage: Dominque Lesbirel was married to her cat and will marry her dog when time is right

Dominique Lesbirel was with her last husband – her cat Doerack – for 16 years and says it’s too soon yet but she will wed her cat Travis

Dominique Lesbirel was devastated after the death of her husband from kidney failure.

They had been together for 16 years and did everything together.

Happily she has now found love again – but still believes it is too soon to marry, remaining loyal to her first love Doerack.

It is a predicament many people can relate to – except for a couple of small details.

Dominique’s first husband Doerack was her CAT – and her new love is her DOG Travis.

PA Real LifeDominique and Travis
Happy: Dominique and Travis plan to wed

She wed her soul-mate, pet cat Doreack, eight years ago, but sadly he had to be put down at the age of 19.

“Putting Doerack to sleep was horrible, I’ve had him since he was three, but I feel lucky to have had 16 lovely years with him,” she said,

“It sounds strange but I wouldn’t marry Travis just yet,” she said. “It’s still too soon after the death of Doerack.

“I’ve had Travis for years. He was a stray I rescued when I lived in Greece.

“He would come down to the beach I swam at every day and eat from the bins or scrabble in the sand for old bits of crab.

“I’d leave him food and water so he didn’t have to drink from the sea. At first he would hide in the bushes but eventually he got brave enough to come over to me for cuddles.

“He’d steal my shoes and bag while I was swimming and, with it, he stole my heart.”

When Travis was struck with a life-threatening virus, Dominique, 41, decided to take him in full time and the pair have been together ever since.

PA Real LifeDoerak
Former partner: Doerak the cat was married to his owner

The upcoming ceremony will be done through Marryyourpet.com , a website Dominique set up in 2003.

The site boasts several thousand visitors a day and Dominique, who lives in Holland, pronounces several couples a month lawfully wedded pet and owner.

After their applications to marry are approved, each couple is taken to a virtual chapel on screen, where they exchange vows.

PA Real LifeTravis
Rescue: Travis was saved by his owner and now is to be a husband

The happy couple then click a button to say ‘I do’ and Dominique, who became ordained online, sends them a certificate.

She said she encourages people to see the ceremony as a normal wedding, planning in advance, inviting friends and throwing lavish parties to celebrate.

“Not all applications get approved,” she said. “There are rules, as with any marriage.

“I’m happy to conduct same sex marriages, or to let people marry more than one pet. I only marry domestic animals, though. In some parts of the world, you hear of people keeping lions and tigers as pets – I wouldn’t marry people to them.

“I also need to be sure they truly love and respect their pet.”

Marryyourpet.com’sden rule is that divorce is not an option.

“The difference between a church ceremony and my online chapel is that I don’t allow divorce. I don’t want to let anybody abandon their pet,” said Dominique.

PA Real LifeDominique and Doerak
Dominique: Had a special bond with her late cat Doerak

Although most people understand the light-hearted and loveable tone of the site, a small handful have not seen the funny side.

Dominique claims to have received hate mail and even death threats in the past.

“I had people emailing me telling me I was cruel,” she said.

“They said I was basically promoting animal cruelty. Some were horrified and thought I was condoning bestiality, which was awful and certainly not the case.

“I would never condone such terrible acts of cruelty to animals. My site is all about making a commitment to pets to show your dedication to them and promise that you will always look after them.

PA Real LifeTravis
Travis

Dominique was inspired to set up the site after her cat Zeus was tragically run over and killed.

“I felt really depressed and nobody seemed to get it,” she said. “People just kept saying, ‘Come on, it’s just a cat,’ but it wasn’t to me.

“We have such a strong bond with our pets, but if you tell people you’d rather go home to your cat than go out, they look at you like you’re insane.

“With a human, you can point to a ring to show you’re committed to each other but with pets, there’s no one moment of joy to mark that bond.

“Pets are loyal and adoring so I wanted to create something to celebrate that.

“We all need that unconditional love, but it can be hard to find with a person, especially when everyone withdraws behind their phone or laptop screens, so why not look to a pet instead?”

Dominique ‘s site also offers advice for couples in crisis.

“So what if kitty’s having an affair with your neighbour or Fido’s too busy on eBay to give you quality time,” it reads. “For better or worse, remember? Clearly it’s time to put the spice back into your marriage.”

The section includes recommendations of pet therapists as well as ideas of treats for furry friends should any owners find themselves in the dog house.

Couples also keep in touch with the Marryyourpet.com team to update them on married life as they rack up anniversaries.

“We’d be lost without those happy little faces at our windows, so I’ll do anything I can to remind people to treat animals with love, kindness and respect.

“That’s why I’m planning to marry Travis. He’s given me so much happiness and unconditional love. I just want to celebrate that bond.”

http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/real-life-stories/woman-marry-pet-dog-after-6106676

Danger of Synthol

Synthol (synthol).

A few years ago you could hardly find an ever more information about synthol in ruskoyazychnyh media. It almost was not. And now, just lazy about it have not heard – many articles … Although they are essentially clones of a small transferable Wikipedia that appeared in “Muscle & Fitness” for May 2001 and must pay tribute, has promoted this shit from us. However, it has been particularly active this theme became obsuzhdatsya on various websites and forums just last year. And I must say pleased that both heterosexual and consumers of steroids in the majority agree that the use of synthol – the prerogative of the head ill people do not have to sport in any way. And now in order.

History.

Synthol – Pump’N’Pose So it has decided that talking about creating synthol begin by mentioning esiklena. I remind you that this drug has gained immense popularity in the 80 years, has an extremely low anabolic activity, but intramuscular injections has the property to cause strong inflammatory response, resulting in swelling and, accordingly, short-term (around 24 hours) increase in muscle. These properties and led to the widespread use of esiklena competing bodybuilders. And at the same time prompted the German chemist amateur Chris Clark to the idea that a good idea to create a similar drug for long periods. Obtained in the early 90’s, he composition of Synthol ( http://ru.fishki.net/picsw/072008/07/synthol/synthol ) – like the name of one of the most powerful technology of nuclear fusion. However, this name was already patented, so it was invented by a new – “Pump’N’Pose” (Download and Pose). Under this brand name drug is now sold worldwide.

One of the first users synthol was a German strongman Klaus Doring, who calls himself “the owner of the biggest hands in the world,” the size of 27 inches (this umolishennogo you still see). At the end of the article in Kunstkammer and you realize that now there is nothing unusual. A couple of inches with synthol – a common occurrence. And kolyat it is now not only in the biceps and triceps, but also in igronozhnye, quadriceps, deltoids and pectoral muscles.

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Clark found a truly a gold mine (for myself of course), as provided an opportunity for thousands of people ready to go at all for the sake of MASS virtually trouble-free method that does not shun any amateur or pro. $ 400 – that is the price of a bottle synthol, which is banned for use in the “intended use” all federations and committees, but is sold worldwide as oil for posing.

What is Synthol?

Synthol is 85% composed of C8 fatty acids (MCT-Medium Chain Triglycerides – Triglycerides average chain lengths), a number of C10 and C12 fatty acids, 7.5% lidocaine (local anesthetic), 7.5% benzyl alcohol. In simple terms this oil (fat) with some degree of Analgesic substances. The drug is inserted deep into the muscle, which is deposited between the bundles of muscle fibers. With repeated injections, the volume of oil in the muscle grows, increasing its size, just as a stretched balloon filling with air. About 30% of the drug is metabolized by the body. The remaining 70% remain in the muscles, which lasted for more than 3-5 years and are very slow decay. Over the duration of synthol there are many disputes, but mostly they boil down to what synthol lingers in the muscles for much longer than was stated – at least 8 years.

How to apply Synthol? “Injections are made with a fine needle to a depth of one-quarter inch. During the first 20 days of daily 1 ml. 10 more days – to 2 ml. Then 3 ml daily until the muscle will increase its volume. When growth stops within 30 days to 1 ml daily. Another 30 days – 1 ml twice a day. Then, 1 ml per week for 1 month. Only after passing this course gains in muscle size is constant, and the muscle is not reduced. After 4 months of the course must be repeated again: it may be possible to achieve a new addition of the volume (although the chances are not so great, about 50 to 50). From the point of view of medicine is very similar obsessions with schizophrenia. Just imagine – a minimum of 275 ml in the same muscle, at least 250 injections in one muscle!

 

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User training synthol.

Probably many have heard about what workout using Synthol (language does not turn to call them athletes) take the unusual fullness, becoming “really heavy”. Every now and then you read about the “extraordinary Pampa”, that his hands after a single approach in any upper body exercise, “hammered” after hundreds of approaches like any exercise at hand. All this indicates firstly the absolute ignorance of the consumers themselves, and secondly, the absolute literacy of those who sell this stuff. Therefore, be clear. Actually Pump (pump) – is a subjective sensation, which arises in the results at the amplified blood flow to the working muscle, which arises due to expansion of blood vessels and increases blood flow, respectively, the muscles, which is perceived as Distension, etc. With regard to the severity of training and “clogging” of muscles, everything is determined by functional ischemia working muscles (ie, although the blood flow and increased, but it is still insufficient to ensure adequate muscle with oxygen), the consequence is anaerobic glycolysis, lactic acid, burning and pain in the muscles. What happens if the space between muscle fibers is Synthol? It’s very simple. During the same approach will suspend the oil mechanically compresses blood vessels and nerve endings that felt like Pampa, burning, “plugging muscle” muscle is almost no work.

The danger of using synthol.

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“While Clarke claims that synthol absolutely safe, however, in an episode of” Uncensored “Greg Zulaka he withdrew all responsibility for possible consequences for the organism, with its use for any purpose other than oil for posing.” This is a quotation. Funny to read. Now seriously.

Greg Valentino’s hand after a failed injection. A more accurate after the operation. He lucky to be alive.
He lucky to be alive.

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Any injections, even properly perform potentially dangerous for the organism. Virtually no one other than physicians (and not all doctors) do not know of topographic anatomy of blood vessels and nerves. Especially when it comes to small muscle groups. T. of. by intramuscular injection fairly easy to damage a particular nerve, causing paresis (violation of sensitivity) or paralysis of the innervated area.

Scott Klein – died May 22, 2003 after a failed injection synthol.Best result – 11 in the heavyweight champion at the U.S. Championships in 1998.
Contact with a needle into a blood vessel (particularly in the vein) is much more dangerous in terms of development of fat embolism of vessels of the heart, lungs, brain, which often leads to death. Much more often postinjection infection and abscess (localized purulent inflammation), and phlegmon (generalized purulent inflammation) requiring surgery.

Milos Sartsev – one of the few pro confess application synthol. Before surgery on the right biceps.He is after the operation.
In addition to all other components of the drug directly stimulates an inflammatory response in the muscle, but considerable amounts of fatty acids for a long time deposited between muscle bundles, causing ischemia, atrophy and sclerosis of the muscle tissue. Think of at least 250 chances to go to the light!

Ethics and aesthetics.

When it comes to that, IFBB has banned the use synthol I start to laugh. IFBB with its prohibitions is a mockery of themselves. Releasing the list of banned drugs, they seem to indicate that you need to take an athlete to achieve better results in this federation. They require a monster and monsters are not forced to wait long. But if the use of steroids has nothing to do with natural sports, Synthol has nothing to do with sports at all – it’s from somewhere in another world … The world of mutants, or something. And it has nothing to do that, we have a guy with a steroid 50 cm hand lose sintolovomu bastard with a shoulder and forearm 56 cm x 27 cm, and then where would be naturals. None. Just sick of all this.

Cabinet of Curiosities!
Gregg Valentino – best known sintolschik in the world, and part-owner of “the biggest hands in bodbildinge. For me it is so so cylinders with crap instead of hands. Incidentally, what happened to his hand, you might see … lightly.

Klaus Doring – this is the one language does not turn to say strongman, one of the first users synthol, more like a mutant pig. Laurels Valentino did not give him a rest here and tries to …144

Klaus Kaak – crazy old man. As someone put it on one forum: “He seems to escaped from the madhouse, and the output of the guards bucket synthol steal.”

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How is it possible to comment – I do not know. Simply tell where synthol not, because such places do not. Nothing is more idiotic is not seen.

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Ulcers instead of biceps are visible even under a layer of paint. A gripping teeth probably trained separately.

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And as you are govnoemkosti. No, you look around: all the surrounding Islands, blevanut here – specifically, it was worth it. For the sake of this one was worth to be born.

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Another sintolovy freak – Eli Hanna in the company of Russian mutants (M. BEKO – on top, and A. Horse Racing – below) and mutantok. Cool kids – take an example.unnamed
I do not know what he wants to show – probably sintolovy member.

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The peak on the left biceps particularly successful, especially if have time to catch sintolovy ball in the right place at the right time, and you look and you get a peak at the triceps, or anywhere else.
Gary Blais – very typical facial expression suggests nedyuzhennom intellectual capabilities and deep philosophical thought.

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“Powerlifter” with a capital letter. No comments …
Do you think we have no such? There. One of them – Valery Loktionov – 49 years. And the most fun, in different forums, he tries to prove that synthol about it. Of course not – there is, at best – “Oleyna.

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Already once mentioned sintolovyh pros. So here they are. Flex Wheeler’s own persona. Titles will not enumerate.

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Ernie Taylor – 11 th place at Mr. Olympia 2003.

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Mustafa Mohammad – Mr sintolovy quadriceps. Idris Ward-El – U.S. champion in 2002 in the heavyweight and overall classification (just look how the charter – it seems it’s time to take down).

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Look-ka for these guys – yes they are about the same synthol never heard and deeply intelligent glance confirmation of this. Well, those born healthy, which is now too …

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Johnny Moya and Nesser El Sonbati.

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Female Genital Cutting: A Persisting Practice

Female Genital Cutting: A Persisting Practice

 

Abstract

More than 130 million women worldwide have undergone female genital cutting (FGC). FGC occurs in parts of Africa and Asia, in societies with various cultures and religions. Reasons for the continuing practice of FGC include rite of passage, preserving chastity, ensuring marriageability, religion, hygiene, improving fertility, and enhancing sexual pleasure for men. The World Health Organization has classified FGC into 4 types depending on the extent of tissue removed. Immediate complications include hemorrhage, infection, sepsis, and death. Long-term complications include pain, scarring, urinary issues, and poor obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Efforts are being made nationally and internationally to eradicate this practice.

 

Female genital cutting (FGC), also known as female circumcision or female genital mutilation, is an ancient practice that predates the Abrahamic religions. Fraught with medical, legal, and bioethical debates, FGC is practiced in 28 African countries and some countries in Asia. In 1997, the World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Children’s Fund, and United Nations Population Fund issued a joint statement that defined FGC as “all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs whether for cultural or other non-therapeutic reasons.”1

Approximately 3 million girls every year are at risk of undergoing FGC.2 The health, psychological, and sexual complications of FGC depend on the type of procedure that is performed, sterility during the procedure, the experience of the operator, and the social atmosphere at the time the cutting is performed.

Classification of FGC

WHO and other United Nations organizations have recently issued a new joint statement and have broadened the FGC classification (Figure 1).3 Type I, also known as clitoridectomy or sunna, involves removing part or all of the clitoris and/or the prepuce. Type II, also known as excision, involves removing part or all of the clitoris and labia minora, with or without excision of the labia majora. Type III, the most severe form, is also called infibulation or pharaonic. It entails removing part or all of the external genitalia and narrowing the vaginal orifice by reapproximating the labia minora and/or labia majora. This infibulated scar covers the urethra and most of the introitus, leaving a small hole for urination and menses. Type IV is the mildest form and includes any form of other harm done to the genitalia by pricking, piercing, cutting, scraping, or burning.

Figure 1

World Health Organization classification of female genital cutting. Type I, also known as clitoridectomy or sunna, involves removing part or all of the clitoris and/or the prepuce. Type II, also known as excision, involves removing part or all of the

The prevalence of FGC varies from nation to nation, and even within a nation some areas may have never heard of FGC, whereas in other areas FGC is performed on 90% of girls (Figure 2). Type I is practiced mostly in Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Kenya. Type II is performed in parts of West Africa, such as Benin, Sierra Leone, Gambia, and Guinea. Somali, Northern Sudanese, and Djibouti women undergo type III FGC.4 The Northern Nigerians perform type IV by introducing corrosive material in the vagina (known as gishiri) or scraping the vaginal orifice (known as angurya).5

Figure 2

Female genital cutting prevalence among women aged 15–49 years. Sources: Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. Reprinted with permission from United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting:

History

The origins of FGC are a mystery. It is thought to have existed in ancient Egypt, Ethiopia, and Greece.6 The practice transcends religion, geography, and socioeconomic status. Although FGC predates Islam, a small number of Muslims have adopted the practice as a religious requirement. As late as the 1960s, American obstetricians performed clitoridectomies to treat erotomania, lesbianism, hysteria, and clitoral enlargement.7

Girls typically undergo FGC between the ages of 6 and 12 years. It is performed on newborns, at menarche, and prior to marriage. Usually girls are aware that they will be cut some day, and some eagerly anticipate it. Villagers gather girls and celebrate the rite of passage with food, song, and gifts.6

Generally, midwives or trained circumcisers go from village to village and perform the cutting with no anesthesia, antibiotics, or sterile technique. Their instruments are knives, razors, scissors, or hot objects that are reused. After the tissue has been excised, sutures, thread, and local concoctions such as oil, honey, dough, or tree sap are used to ease bleeding. Postoperatively, wound care depends on the extent of damage. Girls who have undergone type I usually heal within a few days, whereas girls who have undergone type III require bed rest for approximately 1 week. Their thighs and legs are bound together to ensure proper healing of the infibulated scar.

Some girls are unaware they will be cut. FGC is performed on these girls suddenly, without mental preparation, celebration, or fanfare. In this situation, girls can be emotionally traumatized. In other cases, nurses and physicians perform FGC in their offices under anesthesia in order “to protect” girls from complications. The international medical community strongly opposes medicalizing FGC on ethical grounds. Medical involvement is also seen as justifying and perpetuating a practice that should instead be eradicated.8

A Persisting Practice

Parents who continue this practice are compassionate and loving. They believe that they are protecting their daughters from harm. Reasons that parents and practitioners give for the procedure include rite of passage, preserving chastity, ensuring marriageability, improving fertility, religious requirement, hygiene, and enhancing sexual pleasure for men. Parents who insist that their daughters undergo FGC are driven by a fear that their daughters may never marry. An unmarried daughter is ostracized and shunned in these societies, and may be seen as unclean, unhygienic, and perhaps even labeled as a prostitute. Some societies believe that the clitoris is toxic, and if during child birth the clitoris touches the baby’s head, the baby will die. Some societies believe that if unchecked, the clitoris will grow until it touches the ground. Thus, removing the clitoris improves survival, ensures beauty, and preserves their daughter’s reputation.

Complications and Treatment

Women with types I and II FGC who survive the procedure rarely have long-term complications given that they do not have an infibulated scar covering their external genitalia. Women who undergo type III FGC are at the highest risk for immediate and long-term complications. The most common immediate complications are uncontrolled bleeding, fever, wound infection, sepsis, and death.4 The most common long-term complications are dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, recurrent vaginal and urinary tract infections, infertility, cysts, abscesses, keloid formation, difficult labor and delivery, and sexual dysfunction.4,913

Infertility is a devastating psychosocial complication to the infibulated woman. Her infertility rate can be as high as 30%.12,13 This infertility rate is secondary to both anatomic and psychologic barriers. The infibulated scar that supposedly protects girls from pregnancy out of wedlock becomes the obstacle that prevents them from getting pregnant within marriage. With multiple coital attempts over several months and using ample lubricants, the scar can stretch, but coitus is still very painful. This creates an unhealthy and distressing sexual relationship between husband and wife. Women fear that they may never become mothers, and husbands question their masculinity.14 Although some studies have demonstrated that men prefer to marry uncircumcised women,15 other studies have found the opposite to be true.16

Once pregnant, infibulated women face another daunting challenge: labor and delivery. In a large study, women with FGC were found to be at an increased risk of having adverse obstetric outcomes, including postpartum hemorrhage, episiotomies, cesarean deliveries, extended maternal hospital stay, infant resuscitation, stillbirth, or neonatal death. These risks increased with the severity of FGC.17

Given the degree of damage and the multiple complications from the infibulation scar, women with type III FGC can be offered a defibulation procedure to treat long-term complications. Defibulation, a surgical procedure performed under regional or general anesthesia, opens the infibulated scar and exposes the urethra and introitus. In parts of Somalia and Djibouti, defibulations are performed by midwives, traditional birth attendants, or the circumcisers themselves. Opening the scar enables women to become fertile, eases dyspareunia, and improves labor and delivery experiences. One study found that defibulation not only resolved long-term complications, but that almost 50% of the women who were defibulated had an intact clitoris (Figure 3).18

Figure 3

(A) Type III female genital cutting: infibulated scar covering urethra and introitus. A Kelly clamp is placed at the small opening. (B) Defibulation is performed. The urethra and introitus is exposed. A buried clitoris is found. (C) Completed defibulation.

How Can FGC Be Stopped?

Over the past 30 years, grassroots, national, and international organizations have actively worked on eradicating this practice. FGC has been outlawed in most countries, but because governments rarely enforce these laws they are essentially ineffective. FGC is recognized as a violation of human and child rights. But when eradication efforts are made from Western nations, the issue becomes emotionally charged. Grassroots programs organized by local and national groups that focus on increasing human rights awareness and knowledge have had great success in reducing the incidence of FGC. Communities are voicing their desire to abandon the practice, religious institutions are indicating that FGC is not a requirement, and governments are approving programs that educate the nation about the harms of FGC.2 Along with prevention, focus must be made on assisting those who have already undergone FGC and are living with long-term complications. Medical institutions must participate in promoting defibulation procedures and helping women live pain-free lives.

Main Points

  • Female genital cutting (FGC), also known as female circumcision or female genital mutilation, is an ancient practice that predates the Abrahamic religions. FGC is practiced in 28 African countries and some countries in Asia.
  • Girls typically undergo FGC between the ages of 6 and 12 years. Midwives or trained circumcisers go from village to village and perform the cutting with no anesthesia, antibiotics, or sterile technique.
  • Reasons that parents and practitioners give for the procedure include rite of passage, preserving chastity, ensuring marriageability, improving fertility, religious requirement, and enhancing sexual pleasure for men.
  • Women who undergo type III FGC are at the highest risk for immediate and long-term complications. The most common immediate complications are uncontrolled bleeding, fever, wound infection, sepsis, and death. The most common long-term complications are dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, recurrent vaginal and urinary tract infections, infertility, cysts, abscesses, keloid formation, difficult labor and delivery, and sexual dysfunction.
  • Given the degree of damage and the multiple complications from the infibulation scar, women with type III FGC can be offered a defibulation procedure to treat long-term complications. Defibulation, a surgical procedure performed under regional or general anesthesia, opens the infibulated scar and exposes the urethra and introitus.

References

1. Female Genital Mutilation: A Joint WHO/UNICEF/UNFPA Statement. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 1997.
2. Female genital mutilation (FGM) [Accessed September 2, 2008]. World Health Organization Web site. http://www.who.int/reproductive-health/fgm/index.html.
3. Eliminating Female Genital Mutilation: An Interagency Statement. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2008.
4. Nour N. Female genital cutting: clinical and cultural guidelines. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2004;59:272–279. [PubMed]
5. Mandara M. Female genital mutilation in Nigeria. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2004;84:291–298. [PubMed]
6. Female Genital Cutting: Clinical Management of Circumcised Women. Washington, DC: The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists; 2008.
7. Cutner W. Female genital mutilation. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 1985;40:437–443. [PubMed]
8. Cook R, Dickens B, Fathalla M. Female genital cutting (mutilation/circumcision): ethical and legal dimensions. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 2002;79:281–287. [PubMed]
9. Almroth L, Elmusharaf S, El Hadi N, et al. Primary infertility after genital mutilation in girlhood in Sudan: a case-control study. Lancet. 2005;366:385–391. [PubMed]
10. Aziz F. Gynecologic and obstetric complications of female circumcision. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1980;17:560–563. [PubMed]
11. Agugua N, Egwuatu V. Female circumcision: management of urinary complications. J Trop Pediatr. 1982;28:248–252. [PubMed]
12. MacLeod T. Female genital mutilation. J Soc Gynaecol Can. 1995;17:333–342.
13. Meniru GI. Female genital mutilation (female circumcision) Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1994;101:832. [PubMed]
14. Versin J. Sequelae of female circumcision. Trop Doct. 1975;5:163–169.
15. Herieka E, Dhar J. Female genital mutilation in the Sudan: survey of the attitude of Khartoum university students toward this practice. Sex Transm Infect. 2003;79:220–223. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
16. Gruenbaum E. Sexuality issues in the movement to abolish female genital cutting in Sudan. Med Anthropol Q. 2006;20:121–138. [PubMed]
17. Banks E, Meirik O, Farley T, et al. Female genital mutilation and obstetric outcome: WHO collaborative prospective study in six African countries. Lancet. 2006;367:1835–1841. [PubMed]
18. Nour N, Michels K, Bryant A. Defibulation to treat female genital cutting: effect on health and sexual function. Obstet Gynecol. 2006;108:55–60. [PubMed]
 

Articles from Reviews in Obstetrics and Gynecology are provided here courtesy of MedReviews, LLC

Tattoo Trend

Top Tattoo Trends Of 2014

If you’re going for individuality, these tattoos may not be for you. These can be seen on much of the recent teenaged population. Still, the tattoo belongs to the wearer and cliché doesn’t always mean bad! Just because the imagery is prevalent doesn’t mean that these tattoos aren’t always totally legitimate.posted on May 2, 2014, at 10:14 a.m.

1. Feather

Feather

Let’s be honest, I think we all know someone who has a feather tattoo. This is currently the top choice for many getting their first ink. Usually leaning towards air and flight symbolism, a feather can symbolize a free spirit, letting go, spirituality, or courage.

2. Anchor

Anchor

Often accompanied by “Refuse to Sink” or other motivational wording, this sailor classic has recently been adapted in many different ways.

3. Infinity

Infinity

Small and versatile. Love, faith, sisters, best friends…regardless of meaning, it seems like literally everyone is/was getting one of these. (is? was? has this trend hit it’s peak? will it ever?)

4. Dreamcatcher

Dreamcatcher

Ah yes, quite possibly one of the most culturally-appropriated symbols of all time, The Dreamcatcher. Flaunted by very few Native Americans and many a white girl, this tattoo has been adorning many ribcages ever since Miley Cyrus jumped on this bandwagon.

5. Roman Numerals

Roman Numerals

With so many dates to commemorate, it’s no wonder Roman Numerals are all the rage.

6. Cross

Cross

Suddenly everyone became religious, or at least felt the need to mark it on their bodies forever. These are especially popular at the back of the neck and on hands and fingers.

7. Arrow

Arrow

Because “An arrow can only be shot by pulling it backward. So when life is dragging you back with difficulties, it means that it’s going to launch you into something great.”

8. Om

Om

We all have that one friend who is “so into yoga” and goes on juice cleanses and sports one of these widely culturally-appropriated tattoos.

9. Birds

Birds

BIRDS. Whether it’s something changing into birds, or just a little flock, everyone seems to have birds.

Go to school 看A片的九大缺點!

Go to school: 
‘H “k6 L” W) M / U
2 D7 R) u% |:. [6 t4 \ * h 1
 always thought that when you hit a shot with the teacher failed the math test to cross the border. 0 N, a% L * C $ V, \ 2 X “y3 K e
# C * y7 q, B + E2 b (h “q (xd 2.
 Always like to think that the health center’s aunt grandmother helped me a massage with a large wound. 
% R # b7 L & c * [/ X, j7 e & y 3.
 Always thought that female teachers arrived each new class must be helped to teach male students trumpet. ) `+ W & A9 l. F” D-W / F4 e
# |.!!. H3 C T% A & A x 4
 always thought to go to physical education is a very dangerous thing, because the male teachers will be asked to do push-ups on the girls ass. 

/ I% [2 L + g9} – N ‘G home when: 
6 E (i% A) V-U, j (m n * K
# I2 R7 T, _-o. ~ 6 O7 E / k 5.
 Always thought old father no strength to cope with the new mother, so when his son to stick out her very full coarse meal. 
3 Z) K “A # X2 j. D8 j% j-~ 1 ^ 6.
 Always thought aunt next door to go out to buy food when not wearing underwear, see greengrocer on shelling exchange for onions. 
# X5 @ 5 U) p ‘I / S9 E9 I “V6 l 7.
 Always thought sister saw me in the shower on the matter in 3721 immediately outside their own cool again. 
8.
 Always thought the maid at home are divorced Jour, but always called her stuffed cucumber cut in the middle of the foot. , L Y3 P / f) h} 7 d
% O6 m7 W! [0 e. X9 H4 u2 r 9.
 Always thought to send registered mail postman do not have to cover the seal, as long as the milk exposed to him on it.

Top 10 Best Sounding Languages

Top 10 Best Sounding Languages -//

1Italian

+17It’s got staccato, it’s got bella figura and it’s got a natural flow like now other language. It’s a like a sunbaked, elegantly worn down version of Latin with sprinkles on top. It’s got the warmth of Portuguese, the clarity of Spanish and the sophistication of French. If there is a heaven, they surely speak Italian over there.

+15It’s sounds so melodic! In my opinion it’s much than french, which sounds too snobbish.
Some languages that don’t sound good are near the top because of their native speakers.

+10This is modern Latin. It is a very poetic language and has some of the best literature. I am a native English and Spanish speaker. And I must say that Italian flows the way a language should. Only Spanish, Portuguese and Romanian come close. French sucks.

2French

+15Definitely french. I speak spanish and english and I’m studying french and the sound is amazing. I would love to marry a french girl

+9As a fluent Spanish (Madrid, Spain) and English (North Carolina, US) speaker there is no language that compares with French. I would trade both languages I know just to know French.

+6I hate the sound of French.

3English

+1I am from Germany. I have learnt French and English. French is a good language but I found English to be much more easy to learn because it does not have different genders and endings. There are a few complicated endings such as ‘enough’ and ‘through’ but every language has problems like that and they are easy to get over anyway

+2Spoken all over the world by millions of people. Brilliant sound and romantic

+2I speak it :p and a lot of the world speaks English…

4Swedish

+10I have listened to the language and it has a very interesting quality to it.
I am learning Swedish and it sounds nice.
Therefore, I must introduce you with a phrase…
Bra, tack. Och du? (fine, thank you. And you? )

+4Sounds very sweet, like a mix between German and Italian, or like German without the harchness. Some people say that swedish is like German spoken under water. The most beautiful of the Germanic languages in my opinion.

+6When Swedish people talk, it sounds like they’re singing. Beautiful!

5Russian

+13Definitely the scariest white people.

+7Beautiful sounding. It’s flowing. How did Japanese get near the top. I am Japanese and most people including me find it annoying to hear. I would weather hear German.

+1It has no set word order, there’s lots of freedom to play with words. It’s got some very unconventional and ultimately awesome sounding noises in there. And it’s so blunt and to the point that it can make a lot of mundane things sound awesome.

6Japanese

+18I love the way it sounds, the type of words found are much better to listen to and fun to say than Frwnach or Englich, etc. In addition, I think how they flow together is really great. French is just absolutely terrible, I HATE IT! Although Italian would be a second to Japanese. Plus, Japanese music is just amazing.

+20The Asians groups and singers are the best music all around the world in this moment

+17It flows perfectly, though the grammar is a bit difficult to grasp if English is your first language.

7Portuguese

+19Whether from Brazil (Brasil), Africa or, of course, Portugal- it’s simply lulling to the ears, no matter where you’re from. One of the Romance languages; its structure is great while its soft nasalized tones and “sh” endings are not only easy on the ear, but more than pleasing in their almost sung form. I’d vote it top 5 if not “numero um”!

+4The Portuguese is awesome, but the Portuguese from Europe and Africa doesn’t sound well as the Portuguese from Brazil sounds. It is totally different than any other kind of Portuguese spoken worldwide. It is consequence of the influence that the Brazilian Portuguese received of a lot of other languages, such as Italian, Spanish, German, languages of Brazilian Indians, and languages brought from Africa by black slaves. It is what made the Portuguese from Brazil be the beautiful language that it is nowadays. Brazilian Portuguese is amazing.

+11Wondeful. Have a huge arsenal of words. And sounds great as well.
Sadly a little quantity of other countries know much things about her.

8Greek

Its like mixed Italian with Russian when I was in Greece I was in the train and 2 beautiful greek girls were talking next to me and it was like the cutest language I’ve ever heard in my life!

matty101

+1It sounds like all the European languages (Russian, Italian, Spanish… ) together and has a very nice sound.

+2One of the most beautiful-sounding languages in the world.

9Spanish

+8It is a beautiful language, easy to learn, widely spoken and Spanish people are very friendly. I would trade in my English language to speak Spanish.

+2This language is very light on the ears with sounds that just glide right off of the tongue. I’m a speaker of Spanish and favor the sounds produced over English. Words flow right into each other without a stutter. This language is way softer than its closer cousin languages like Portuguese a Italian.

10Dutch

+2I love dutch, definitely the middle of English and German, has latin, French influences like English, if the norman French didn’t invade in 1066, English and dutch would share mutual intelligibility, very much like how Norway and Sweden are today, hence dutch and English are very closely related I speak both languages and some words and scentences need no translation at all

+1The Dutch language is interesting and easy to learn, because it looks a bit like the English.

 

singing is good for heart

HowStuffWorks “Physical Effects of Singing”// //

Does singing make you happy?

by

HowStuffWorks “Physical Effects of Singing”// //

Physical Effects of Singing

All types of singing have positive psychological effects. The act of singing releases endorphins, the brain’s “feel good” chemicals. Singing in front of a crowd, a la karaoke, naturally builds confidence, which has broad and long-lasting effects on general well-being. But of all types of singing, it’s choral singing that seems to have the most dramatic effects on people’s lives.

A study published in Australia in 2008 revealed that on average, choral singers rated their satisfaction with life higher than the public — even when the actual problems faced by those singers were more substantial than those faced by the general public . A 1998 study found that after nursing-home residents took part in a singing program for a month, there were significant decreases in both anxiety and depression levels . Another study surveying more than 600 British choral singers found that singing plays a central role in their psychological health .

But why? Could you just start belting out a tune right now in order to make yourself feel happy?

It’s possible. Some of the ways in which choral singing makes people happy are physical, and you get them whether you’re in a chorus or in a shower — as long as you’re using proper breathing techniques during that shower solo. Singing can have some of the same effects as exercise, like the release of endorphins, which give the singer an overall “lifted” feeling and are associated with stress reduction. It’s also an aerobic activity, meaning it gets more oxygen into the blood for better circulation, which tends to promote a good mood. And singing necessitates deep breathing, another anxiety reducer. Deep breathing is a key to meditation and other relaxation techniques, and you can’t sing well without it.

Physical effects, while pretty dramatic, are really just the beginning. Singing causes happiness for other reasons that have less of a biological basis.

 

http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/singing-happy1.htm